The High Trinity
And The Deity Of Jesus Christ
Is Jesus God Almighty, the Second Person of the Trinity?
“And God said, I am lonely, I’ll make me a man.”
- ‘70s Band
The band was conveying through their music a denial of the Holy Trinity, and by extension, the Deity of Jesus Christ, both major tenets of the Christian faith. Apparently, I had just enough Bible knowledge to know that something was wrong. Whether the musicians were doing this on purpose or out of ignorance I do not know. Fortunately, the album did not go far.
An obvious question now arises: If God was all alone throughout eternity (as the band claimed), was it necessary for Him to create living beings in order to alleviate His loneliness? In other words, did God have to create in order to know and experience communion and love? The implications of this are staggering. For example, since nothing can be added to infinity, nothing can ever be added to God, for God is infinite. To add anything to God—such as love—would be to deny His infinite nature and render Him limited, and thus deficient. It would also contradict the Bible, for the Bible says God is infinite (e.g., Psalm 147:5, Jeremiah 23:24).
Although such queries are complex and convoluted, answers are well within our grasp. They require only a bit of reason, logic and Biblical knowledge. For example, Psalm 147:5 says God is unlimited: "Great is our Lord, and mighty in power; his understanding has no limit.” (See also Isaiah 40:28, Proverbs 15:3, 1 Chronicles 28:9, Jeremiah 32:17, Matthew 19:26.) God is also “love” (I John 4:8), though He “is One” (Deut. 6:4), and always has been (Isaiah 43:10), which brings us back to our query: How can a solitary Being know and show love if there was no one to love?
The only solution to this paradox is the High Trinity: One God in three Persons—Father, Son and Holy Spirit—each fully, equally and eternally God. Although the concept is impossible for finite minds to grasp, or human language to describe, the concept of the Trinity is consistent with reason and logic. It is also, in a strange sort of way, pleasing and satisfying to the human spirit; in particular, resolving the paradox of how love can be given and received within one Being. If the Trinity exists, love and affection between the Three Persons have always existed (e.g., John 17:24).
But, some will ask, how can something so unbelievably complex be believed? Here's a helpful analogy: every second of every day quadrillions upon quadrillions of electrons flow through solid conductors approaching the speed of light (eight times around the world every second, reversing directions 60 times each second). This is impossible to fully understand. But we know that it’s true, evidence for it is all around us. We use 60-cycle, alternating current every day. In a similar way, we can know that the Trinity exists; for as we shall see later, evidence for it also is all around us.
God’s Word Affirms the Trinity
“God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, in Our likeness... So God created man in His own image,
in the Image of God He created him; male and female He created them.’”
- Genesis 1:26-27
Notice in verse 26 it says, “Let Us make…”, then in v. 27 it says, “He created”; an ‘Us’ then a ‘He,’ referring to the one and same God. Although some may charge us with contradiction, these verses are no more contradictory than a single object having length, width and height; or time being past, present and future. In our very own space (1) time (2) matter (3) universe, God has shown us that 3 can exist as 1:
“For from the creation of the world the invisible things of Him are clearly seen, being understood
through the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead.”
- Rom. 1:20
Jesus’ claim to Deity also presupposes (and demands) the Trinity:
1. Jesus declared that there is but one God: “Hear, O Israel, the Lord our God is one Lord” (Mark 12:29). A few verses later, in refuting the religious leaders opposing Him, He says: “How is it that the scribes say that the Christ is the Son of David? For David himself said by the Holy Spirit: ‘The Lord said to my Lord, ‘Sit at My right hand, till I make Your enemies Your footstool.’ Therefore if David himself calls Him ‘Lord’; how is He then his Son?” (35-37). Jesus’ claim of incarnation, and preexistence with God—as God—is undeniable.
2. Jesus taught the people to pray: “Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed be thy name” (Mat. 6:9). But, in John 14:13 He says: “And whatsoever ye shall ask in my name, that will I do, that the Father may be glorified in the Son.” Jesus’ claim that He is God, as the Father is God, is unmistakable.
3. In the Book of Isaiah, God declares: “I am Jehovah, that is my name; and my glory I will not give to another” (Is. 42:8). But Jesus prays, “And now, Father, glorify me in your presence with the glory I had with you before the world began” (John 17:5). Here, Jesus equates His glory with the Father’s glory.
Many other passages affirm the Diety of Christ : e.g., John 1:1-4; John 20:27-28; Col. 1:16, 2:9 and Mat. 11:27. If Jesus is God, the Trinity must exist.
"'No sooner do I conceive of the One than I am illumined by the splendor of the Three; no sooner do I distinguish Three than I am carried back into the One. When I think of any of the Three, I think of him as the whole, and my eyes are filled, and the greater part of what I am thinking escapes me'"
- Gregory of Nazianzus, AD 329-390
Historical Evidence For The Trinity
“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word
- John 1:1-2
“The account of the Flood in Genesis does not stand alone. Traditions similar to this record are found among nearly all the nations and tribes of the human race. And this is as one would expect it to be. If that awful world catastrophe, as described in the Bible, actually happened, the existence of the Flood traditions among the widely separated and primitive people is just what is to be expected. It is only natural that the memory of such an event was rehearsed in the ears of the children of the survivors again and again and possibly made the basis of some religious service. The religious ceremonies connected with these traditions as found, e.g., in Egypt, Mexico and among some tribes of the American Indians, can be satisfactorily explained only in this light. This awful disaster left an indelible impression upon the minds of men before they were scattered abroad; and whether we go to ancient Babylon, the Sumerians or to the Chaldeans, to the Chinese or to the American Indians, to the natives of the Pacific Islands or to the ancient inhabitants of India, everywhere is found some trace of a Flood tradition and a memory of a fearful catastrophe which destroyed mankind and left but one or a few survivors.”
Rehwinkel also reminds us of the gradual corruption of those legends:
“As might be expected, these traditions have been modified through the ages and have been influenced by the customs of the various peoples and by the environment in which they are found and have thus taken on local color and sometimes extravagant and fantastic proportions, so that the kernel of truth in many cases is seriously obscured. And yet, when stripped of the accretions which have accumulated as they were handed down from father to son through the generations, the essential facts of this great catastrophe are easily discernible. There is almost complete agreement among them on all the three main features: 1. There is a universal destruction of the human race and all other living things by water. 2. An ark, or boat, is provided as the means of escape. 3. A seed of mankind is preserved to perpetuate the human race. To these might be added a fourth, which, though not occurring in all the traditions, occurs very frequently, namely, that the wickedness of man is given as the cause of the Flood.
(With a quick search on the Internet, many of these legends can be easily found.)
(Note: It’s apparent that our government schools have censored many of these events from our history books, giving us a false, evolutionary view of our world. Thanks to the preservation of these ancient legends, these historical gems—which are nearly always confirmed by archaeology2—we have a more accurate and comprehensive view
of our history.)
By using Prof. Rehwinkel’s reasoning we can make an excellent case for the Trinity as well. Consider the numerous hints of the Trinity in the Old Testament:
Gen. 1:26 - And God said, “Let us make man in our image, after our likeness.”
Gen. 3:22 - Then the Lord God said, “Behold, the man has become like one of us, to know good and evil.”
Gen. 11:7 - And Jehovah said, “Come, let us go down, and there confound their language.”
Isaiah 6:8 - And I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, “Whom shall I send, and who will go for us?”
Although Jehovah is referred to in the plural in these passages, in other places He's referred to singularly, again, giving us a somewhat puzzling picture. The concept of the Trinity however resolves this difficulty (thanks to the scriptures and the labors of early Christian apologists). But we must now ask: How did our earliest ancestors approach this enigma? If it’s true that myths and legends contain nuggets of truth, the rise of a triplicity of gods suggests a prior (and uncorrupted) knowledge of a triplicity of Persons within the One God, which then degenerated into tritheism, then polytheism (e.g., Buddhism, Hinduism, Shintoism) and the ‘many-god’ concoctions of modern-day religions: Wiccans, Mormonism, Freemasons, New Agers etc.
Biblical evidence for this is strong. Luke 1:70 tells us the prophets spoke from the very beginning, “since the world began.” Jesus asserted likewise: the blood of the prophets was “shed from the foundations of the world” (Luke 11:50). And in Acts 3:21, Peter asserted that “God spoke by the mouth of all His holy prophets since the world began.” If the Biblical sages prophesied from the very beginning, it’s very unlikely they were silent about the Trinity.
In the New Testament we're acquainted with the “wise men of the East,” more confirmation that far away peoples were aware of the one true God. Known as the magi, they traveled over a thousand miles (most likely from Persia) to see the young child Jesus. Having “seen His star in the East” they came “to worship Him” (Matt. 2:2). How interesting that the magi were descendants of Elam (Gen. 10:22), a son of Shem (the progenitor of the Hebrews), the son of Noah. How did they know a Heavenly King was to be born? How did they know it was His Star in the sky? How did they know He was to be worshipped? The silence is deafening!
spoke to certain gentiles, and used them when it suited His purpose. This, of course, shadowed the salvation and redemption of the gentiles, now taking place under the New Testament dispensation.
(Note: Additional evidence exists, very very old, that the coming Savior was known to the people of the pre-Flood world, not only through Divine revelation [e.g., Gen. 3:15; Jude 14-15], but in the constellations of the ancient night skies. The ancient historian Josephus writes that the tribe of Seth [a son of Adam, “a virtuous man... of excellent character”] was the “inventors of that particular sort of wisdom which is concerned with the heavenly bodies and their order” [The Complete Works, p.1.2.3.]. If true, whatever appeared as "that particular sort of wisdom" in the night skies in the pre-Flood world has long since regressed and degenerated into its present evil form—astrology—which the Bible severely condemns [Deut. 4:19]). (Source: Seiss, The Gospel In The Stars; Kregel Publications)
From the very beginning, this Heavenly Savior was predicted and anticipated across the whole antediluvian landscape. But because of the world's fallenness, and man's sin and rebelliousness, our pre-Flood ancestors rejected the warnings given by the prophets (as man still does today), and are preserved in a horrid, ghastly region awaiting the Day of Judgment.
The Scriptures do not record every utterance of the prophets (the LORD is under no obligation to do so) but this much we do know: The overarching theme of all the prophets was that man is under a Divine Curse, facing eternal damnation because of sin, and desperately needs a Savior. That Savior came as the sages foretold, and now awaits the decision of every one of us, to either accept and obey Him, or reject Him.
Man is not, and never has been, ignorant of this Divine Savior. (Whose name do you hear cursed and taken in vain every day?) The message of the prophets is clear, and amply summed up in the last book of the Bible: “the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy” (Rev. 19:10).
Ancient Shadows of the Trinity
“The Egyptians... used the triangle as a symbol of their triform divinity.”
- Layard, ‘Babylon and Nineveh,’ p.605
In Sumeria, the triad Anu, Enlil and Ea, were given the ‘sky, earth and waters,’ constituting a “Triad of the Great Gods.” 7 It's interesting that ‘sky, earth and waters’ hint at the roles of the three Persons during the Incarnation: sky (Father, above), earth (Son, below) and waters (Holy Spirit, ‘water’ of life. - John 7:38-39).
A 3-headed god from Babylonia was symbolized by an equilateral triangle, similar to that used by the Roman Catholic Church today.8 A 3-headed god was also worshipped in Siberia and Assyria, as a head of an old man, a circle (or ‘seed’) and the wings and tail of a bird (or ‘dove’). Here we see another semblance of the Trinity: the Father (‘old man,’ or Ancient of Days in Daniel 7:13), Jesus (the ‘seed’ of David in John 7:42) and the Holy Spirit (‘dove’ in Mat. 3:16).9
Christianity teaches there is one God, a belief also taught in the Old Testament. Jesus upheld this view on a number of occasions (e.g., Mat. 4:10; Mark 10:18, 12:29), as did the Apostles (Rom. 3:30, I Cor. 8:6) and other New Testament writers (James 2:19; Jude 25). The belief in one God is called monotheism, which is taught also in Judaism and Islam (though both deny the Trinity). Christianity is unique in this respect, the only religion in the world holding to both monotheism and Trinitarianism.
Bear in mind, however, that the word Trinity does not appear anywhere in the Bible, though the concept is firmly asserted. The Old Testament hinted at it in places like Genesis 1:26, 3:22, 11:7 and Isaiah 6:8, and was brought to further light in the New Testament, where Father, Son and Spirit are used extensively (e.g., II Cor. 1: 21-22, 13:14; Eph. 4:4-6; I Peter 1:1-2). The term Godhead does appear in the New Testament (Acts 17:29, Rom. 1:20, Col. 2:9 [KJV, ASV, NKJV]), though neither the word nor its Greek equivalent is an actual reference to the Trinity.10 The Trinity also is not mentioned in any early theological discourses or debates until around 170 AD, when apologist Theophilus of Antioch first introduced it. Nonetheless, the Trinity is Biblical, and as we shall see, was well accepted in the early church.
But how things have changed in our day. Modern theologians and high churchmen feel no pain denouncing those early titans (e.g., Athanasius and the Cappadocian Fathers) with arrogant accusations of ‘theological excess’ and ‘overkill.’ Yet, to those giants churchmen today owe their very existence and standing—and in many cases, their huge salaries. Though those giants were not perfect, nor were their doctrines always perfectly grounded, they did the hard, heavy work, often without any pay, and risk to their very lives.
The late Paul Crouch, founder of Trinity Broadcasting Network, had the gall to tell his followers they were all part of the Trinity.13 Today, sound theology means little to pampered, coddled, church-going Americans, the Person of Jesus Christ and the Trinity even less.)
Regarding the term, homoousios, author and professor Harold O.J. Brown, in his book, Heresies, recounts the word’s early theological necessity.
“Gibbon and others would have us to believe that the whole controversy was a dispute over a trifle, simply the ‘iota’ that distinguishes the two Greek words ‘homoousios,’ ‘of the same substance.’ and ‘homoiousios,’ ‘of similar substance.’” Orthodoxy, however, was persuaded that everything that was important depends on excluding the ‘iota,’ on confessing Christ as of the same substance as the Father, not as of like substance.” 14
Brown’s argument not only undergirds the fact that the early faithful were intensely serious in the exclusion of the ‘iota,’ but that the 'iota' marked the difference between heaven and hell. Unbeknownst to many churchgoers today, belief in Jesus’ Divinity is a prerequisite for salvation: “If you believe not that I AM, you will die in your sins” (John 8:24). This is a far cry from ‘theological overkill.’ (Note: In most translations the word "he" follows "I AM" [i.e., "I AM he"]. He, however, is in italics, which means it was added, not translated.)
the centuries, prompting Brown to further articulate: “The history of Christian theology is in large part a history of heresies, because Jesus and the claims he made...seemed incredible.” 15 (Indeed they were.)
The ‘Nicene Creed’ resulted from this first of many Christian Councils (creeds which we know are extra-Biblical, man-made and prone to error and falsehood, as creeds still are today). Although the Nicene Creed was neither Inspired (in the sense that the Bible is Inspired) nor flawless, the Divinity of Jesus and His relationship to the Father was firmly anchored, and remains today one of the central theological pillars of the Christian religion.
The printing press would not be invented (i.e., in Europe) for another thousand years (AD 1439). Unlike today, with inexpensive Bibles strewn about in every house—and seldom read—the price of a hand-copied Bible prior to Gutenberg’s press likely equaled (or exceeded) the wages of an entire year. Under such circumstances—the near impossibility of a common man owning a Bible, let alone reading and studying one, and trusting for his salvation a corrupt clergy—what if the heretics had won? In your author’s opinion, more was gained at Nicaea than lost.
Non-Trinitarians, Past and Present
"The pure and simple unity of the creator of the universe is now all but ascendant in the Eastern states; it is dawning in the West, and advancing towards the South; and I confidently expect that the present generation will see Unitarianism become the general religion of the United States…"
- Thomas Jefferson,
private letter, Dec. 1822
Contrary to the desires of our 3rd President (a diest), non-trinitarian and anti-trinitarian sects never reached prominence in the new nation. Today it's a different story; non-trinitarians are more numerous than one might first suppose. And they differ little from their early progenitors.
The first among these, the Gnostics, taught that Jesus was a kind of heavenly aeon—an emanation of God—neither human nor divine. Though they rejected Jesus’ divinity, Gnostics believed they could reach a state of godhood themselves (apotheosis) by acquiring certain esoteric knowledge. Within this body of knowledge was the view that all matter was evil, including the human body, seen as a prison of the soul from which it could never escape without gaining more knowledge.
(Note: The Gnostic view that our bodies are evil, or of lesser value than our souls, crops up from time to time in the church [e.g., the cremation argument]. Our present fallen, frail bodies [e.g., Rom. 6:6, 24, 8:10] are sometimes confused with our future resurrected, glorified bodies [I Cor. 15:52]. The notion that our flesh and bones are of little importance conflicts with the scriptures, which say our bodies are creations of God and are “very good” [Gen. 1:31]. Moreover, Jesus suffered and died to redeem our bodies [Rom. 8:23; Eph. 5:23], and at the resurrection our spirits will return to our bodies [Luke 8:55; I Cor. 15:35-44]. More still, for the Christian, the “body is the temple of the Holy Spirit” [I Cor. 6:19]. We need not overly concern ourselves with the Christian martyrs that were burned at the stake in times past; God is well able to resurrect their ashes from the dust of the ground. For us, however, Christ is not honored by purposely burning that which He died for.)
Modern equivalents of gnosticism may include Freemasonry (15 million members worldwide), Rosicrucianism, Unity School of Christianity, Anthroposophy (Christ central to human evolution), Christian Science (400,000), Mormonism (14 million) and various New Age sects (roughly 1/4 of the world’s population).
The Ebionites (100-400 AD) were another sect apposed to fundamental Christian truths. Christ’s pre-existence was denied, as well as His virgin birth, atoning death and resurrection. The Ebionites viewed Jesus not as God, but as a special human chosen by God, to be the long awaited prophet and messiah. A contemporary equivalent would be Islam (though Muslims do accept the virgin birth). Islam claims a billion and a half adherents today (another 1/4 of the world’s population).
2nd Century Adoptionism (sometimes referred to as Dynamic Monarchianism) held that Jesus was absolutely devoted to God, was sinless and holy, but not the eternal God. Jesus was purportedly adopted by the Father and became divine, either at His baptism, resurrection or ascension, depending on what faction is speaking. Adoptionists also deny Jesus’ pre-incarnate existence with the Father, and the ‘hypostatic union’ (God and man in one Person), both classic doctrines of the Christian faith. A modern equivalent would be Unitarianism (around 800,000 members), which holds that God is one Being/one Person.
The teaching of Docetism arose during the early 3rd Century in the non-canonical Gospel of Peter (and perhaps some Greek, Oriental and heterodox Jewish philosophies). The Docetists taught that Jesus was a phantom of sorts and only appeared to be human (and therefore only appeared to die on the Cross). Docetic views correspond with radical modernism and Islam. (It’s interesting that the Muslim Qur’an, which denies Jesus’ crucifixion, resurrection and Divinity, was composed in Mecca during the same time Docetism was common among Mecca’s neighbors.)
The Arians, mentioned above, appeared around 250-336 AD, prompting a very significant theological movement. Arians believed Jesus was created as a lesser god to assist the Father in the creation of the universe, and to provide for man’s redemption. Arian teachings are very similar to Jehovah’s Witnesses, Unitarians and the Church of God International.
5th Century Pelagianism borrowed heavily from heathenism and paganism, holding that Adam’s sin harmed no one but himself. They also believed sinless men existed before Christ, and that keeping the Old Testament Law could save men apart from Christ. Other factions taught that the saved will rise at the Judgement, not because of Jesus’ sacrifice, but because of Jesus’ example. Various aspects of Pelagianism comport with Mormonism and Mormon fundamentalism.
The Socinians, appearing much closer to our time in the 15th and 16th centuries, taught that Christ was the perfect and sinless Messiah, but not the eternal God; He was created during His virgin birth. Socinians were also keen on skepticism and rejected free will. A modern day equivalent might include the Christadelphians (60,000 members), who deny the immortality of the soul, the sanctification of the believer, the existence of hell and the Personhood of the Holy Spirit. Another equivalent might be the Church of God General Conference (5,000 members strong), which also rejects Christ’s pre-existence and the Personhood of the Holy Spirit.
Some of today's non-Trinitarians include:
The Church of God International is an offshoot of the ‘Worldwide Church of God’ (founded by Herbert W. Armstrong, widely viewed on Sunday morning TV before his death in 1986). The CGI holds to doctrines such as millenarianism (a fallacious notion of a future thousand year Golden Age), sabbatarianism (meeting on Saturday) and binitarianism (Father and Son being the same Being). The church also teaches that hell does not exist, men will become Divine at the resurrection (theosis) and that the Holy Spirit is not a Person, but the ‘spirit and power of God,’
Garner Ted Armstrong (Herbert’s deceased son) founded The Church of God International in 1978, but was removed from leadership in 1998 amid accusations of sexual impropriety (like numerous other televangelists). The organization has grown to 61 congregations: in Canada, Jamaica, Australia, the Philippines, Ireland and the U.S.
Oneness Pentecostalism is often referred to as Apostolic Pentecostalism or ‘Jesus Only‘ Pentecostalism. This group is strictly monotheistic, and teaches that Jesus Christ alone is God (the Father, Son and Holy Spirit being one person and one God). Oneness Pentecostals teach that Christ became the Son at the virgin birth, and now the Father lives as the Spirit and the Son lives in the flesh simultaneously, a type of Modalism. Oneness Pentecostals baptize in “Jesus’ name only,” which, again, is contrary to the Trinitarian formula in Mat. 28:19.
South Africa’s New Church (a.k.a., Swedenborgianism) is another sect that teaches Jesus Christ alone is God. God came to earth, they say, not to atone for man’s sins, but to ‘make everybody happy,’ similar to the views of many Americans (one in particular, Victoria Osteen, wife of mega-pastor Joel Osteen. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZLWm48fhCGQ). The Trinity is regarded as a special creation of God: "soul, body and spirit,” or ‘three essentials’ of Divinity.
New Church is at times referred to as New Christians, Neodan-Christians, Church of the New Christ, and The Lord's New Church. (New Church and its offshoots claim a modest membership of 30,000.)
The Lord was only a man, they say, but a man with a unique relationship with God. Unitarian Universalists have no creed, and search for truth in all the world’s religions. (This writer once knew a Unitarian who told him that her church let everyone believe whatever they wanted.) In 2001, nearly 630,000 Americans described themselves as Unitarian Universalists.
Non-Trinitarian groups are as numerous and widespread as they were in the days of the early church. As it still is today, when the Trinity is denied, nearly every classic Christian doctrine is thrown to the wind: for example, the rejection of the universal curse of sin; man’s fallenness; Jesus‘ pre-existence, incarnation and deity; the Personhood of the Holy Spirit; Jesus’ Virgin Birth, crucifixion, resurrection and Ascension; Christ’s perfect and sufficient sacrifice; Divine Grace; worship on the first day of the week and salvation for the obedient few.
Trinitarian opposition has also given rise to religious contradictions and silliness—and sometimes blasphemy—such as Masonic superstitions, apotheosis and secrecy; the crucifixion of the Father; the evilness of the human body; Father and Son being the same Person; the Fatherhood of Jesus; Jesus’ mission to make “everybody happy” and the ‘creation’ of the Trinity.
One must exercise a great deal of caution when choosing a church today. Leaders and minions of these heretical groups will often dodge inquiring minds as to what they really believe and teach. (Brainwashing takes time.) You can be sure of one thing: whenever non-Trinitarianism or anti-Trinitarianism is in the mix, apostasy and corruption will soon follow. Run from these people like you'd run from a rattlesnake!
Go to Part 2
1. Oxford University Press, http://global.oup.com/us/companion.websites/9780195397703/student/materials/chapter1/summary/
2. Price, The Stones Cry Out; Harvest House, back cover
3. Sinclair, Old Truths in a New Light; pp. 382-383. (The author is one who believes that Trinitarianism borrowed from Tritheism.)
4. Wikipedia; entries, Hinduism, Trimurti, and Vishnu
5. Najovits, Egypt, Trunk of the Tree; pp. 83-84
6. Weigall, Paganism in Our Christianity; pp. 197-198
7. The Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology; pp. 54-55
8. Hislop, The Two Babylons; p. 16; Rock, The Mystical Woman and the Cities of the Nations; pp. 22-23
9. Ibid. p.18
10. Cottrell, The Faith Once For All; College Press, p.70
11. Marcionism in Modern History; Wikipedia (entry: Marcionism). Also, Modern Day Marcionism; ‘First Things’ on-line magazine:
12. Wikipedia; entry, Athanasius of Alexandria
13. Apprising Ministries Video: http://apprising.org/2012/12/28/joyce-meyer-and-t-d-jakes-teaching-word-faith-little-gods-doctrine/
14. Brown, Heresies; p. 108
15. Ibid. back cover
16. Apprising Ministries: http://apprising.org/2012/12/28/joyce-meyer-and-t-d-jakes-teaching-word-faith-little-gods-doctrine/
17. Baptist Press: “TD Jakes says he has embraced the Trinity;” http://www.bpnews.net/bpnews.asp?id=37054
“What I say unto you, I say unto all... Watch!” - Jesus (Mark 13:37)